A group of enzymes (EC 3.1.4.-) often called simply phosphodiesterases (PDEs), that exhibit tissue-type and developmental-stage specificity and are controlled in various ways. PDE-1 (535 aa) is calcium/calmodulin regulated and important in the central nervous system and vasorelaxation, PDE-2 (941 aa) is cGMP-dependent and hydrolyses cAMP. PDE-3 (1112 aa) regulates smooth muscle in airways and blood vessels and has effects on platelet aggregation, cytokine production, and lipolysis; PDE-4 (700–800 aa) is inhibited by rolipram and is involved in the control of airway smooth muscle and the release of inflammatory mediators as well as regulating gastric acid secretion and having a role in the central nervous system; variations in PDE4D (809 aa) may be associated with susceptibility to stroke. PDE-5 (875 aa) and PDE-6 (860 aa) are cGMP-specific, PDE-5 is involved in platelet aggregation, PDE-6 is regulated by interaction with transducin in photoreceptors; defects in PDE6 are a cause of retinitis pigmentosa and one form of stationary night blindness. PDE-7 (482 aa) is abundant in skeletal muscle and present in heart and kidney. PDE-8 (829 aa) is found in thyroid, PDE-9 (593 aa) is a high affinity cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, PDE10 (779 aa) is found mainly in the central nervous system. Defects in PDE11A (dual 3′,5′-cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase 11A, 934 aa) are the cause of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease type 2. There are multiple subtypes of many of the PDEs. CNPase hydrolyses 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.