An enzyme complex present in most tissues that produces various prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid and that is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin. Three isoforms are known, COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3. COX-1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase 1, EC 188.8.131.52, 599 aa) and COX-2 (604 aa) are both inhibited by aspirin. Many selective COX-2 inhibitors such as celecoxib have the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity but do not affect the gastric mucosa in the same way as the nonselective NSAIDs; they have other side effects, however, and some have been withdrawn. In humans, a putative COX-3 mRNA is expressed in cerebral cortex and heart; paracetamol (acetaminophen) may inhibit this COX variant.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.