; superfamily Cynipoidea, family Cynipidae)
Subfamily of insects whose larvae induce gall formation on many different species of plant. Galls arising from cynipid attack have names such as oak apple, oak marble, spangle gall, artichoke gall, and Robin's pincushion. Plant galls and the way in which insects are able to produce species-specific and often highly complex structures are little understood.
Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.