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n. examination of the bladder by means of an instrument (cystoscope) inserted via the urethra. The cystoscope consists of either a metal sheath surrounding a telescope and light-conducting bundles or a flexible tube with built-in optical fibres for viewing and illumination. Irrigating fluid is conducted through a channel into the bladder. When using the rigid instrument, additional channels are available for the catheters to be inserted into the ureters, diathermy electrodes for removing polyps, etc., or biopsy forceps for taking specimens of tumours or other growths. When using the flexible cystoscope, only small instruments can be passed through the additional channel, such as biopsy forceps, diathermy electrodes, or laser fibres for the destruction of tumours or stones.

Subjects: Medicine and Health.

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