The founder of the Daruma school, an early and short-lived school of Japanese zen. Nōnin studied Zen texts on his own early in his monastic career, and had a significant enlightenment experience. Realizing that Zen enlightenment requires authentication by a recognized master, he sent two disciples to China in 1189 to visit the master Te-kuang (1121–1203) with letters and gifts. The latter sanctioned Nōnin's experience and sent back a certificate and robe. Thereafter, Nōnin's fame spread and he gathered many disciples. An early account says that he was killed by a nephew in either 1194 or 1195, but scholars give little credence to this. After his death.his disciples joined Dōgen (1200–53).