Term that generally means “proof” but is not limited to logical deduction. Also includes reasoning based on analogy, called “proof by example.” For example, the world must have been produced in time because, like a waterwheel, it is composed of parts, and we know that things containing multiple parts were produced in time. Dalil also includes inference. For example, a smile is a sign of happiness; a woman who is smiling must therefore be happy. Dalil in natural science and law has an empirical aspect, whereby material evidence is required to establish the relevant claim, such as an experiment, event, or document.