Acceded to the throne of Persia after the assassination of Artaxerxēs IV (336 bc). Since antiquity he has been judged negatively—a distortion of a complex reality. His dynastic legitimacy is well established; he prepared himself well for the confrontation with Alexander 2 the Great; to the last he adhered to a coherent strategy in coping with an exceptional opponent. He died in 330 as a result of a plot, when his struggle against Alexander had plainly failed.
Subjects: Classical Studies.