Ohio-born lawyer, mainly associated with Chicago, was noted for his defense of labor organizations, acting as counsel for Debs in the case resulting from the Pullman strike; for William D. Haywood, accused of instigating the murder of the governor of Idaho; and for the McNamara brothers, accused of dynamiting the Los Angeles Times building. He was also known as a criminal lawyer in such cases as the trial of Loeb and Leopold (1924) and the Fortescue-Massie case in Honolulu. His agnosticism was strikingly revealed in the Scopes trial. He wrote several books, including A Persian Pearl (1898), literary essays; Farmington (1904), a novel about his own youth; An Eye for an Eye (1905), a novel concerned with the fallacy of the Mosaic law; Crime: Its Cause and Treatment (1922); and The Story of My Life (1932). Attorney for the Damned (1957) collects 13 major speeches.