A region suffering the economic decline associated with factory closures, outmoded industry, and high unemployment. For government action in declining areas, see Charles et al. (2005) OECD Territorial Review (Newcastle and the North-East). See also Klosterman et al. (2006) Int. J. Env. Tec. & Manage. 6, 1–2, on the What if?TM, GIS system, as used in evaluating remedial strategies in declining regions.
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.