In psychoanalysis, one of three types of hysteria distinguished by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) in 1894 in his article ‘The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence’ (Standard Edition, III, pp. 45–61), and by the Austrian physician Josef Breuer (1842–1925) and Freud in 1895 in their book Studies on Hysteria (Standard Edition, II), characterized by prolific use of defence mechanisms. After 1895 Freud came to believe that defence plays a part in all hysteria, and he abandoned the tripartite distinction, but others continued to use it. US defense hysteria. Compare hypnoid hysteria, retention hysteria.