Abp. of Paris from 1695, created a cardinal in 1700. He was a devoted pastor and an ardent reformer of clerical discipline. His repeated commendations in 1695 and 1699 of P. Quesnel's Réflexions morales caused him to be suspected of Jansenism. A staunch Gallican, he defended the rights of the French bishops in the Assemblies of the Clergy in 1700, 1704, and 1713, and thereby incurred the antagonism of the Ultramontanes. In 1718 he appealed against the bull ‘Unigenitus’; though forced to sign an acceptance of it in 1728, he had prepared a recantation which was circulated later.