(b Hamburg, 1894; d E. Berlin, 1979).
Ger. composer and conductor. Opera coach, Hamburg, 1913–14. Cond. Cologne Opera 1918–23, Berlin State Opera 1926. Lived in Paris 1933–9, USA 1939–45, then returned to Ger. Close assoc. of Brecht, having written incidental mus. to several of his plays. Other works incl. 5 str. qts.; Deutsches miserere, choral work to text by Brecht; operas Die Verurteilung des Lukullus (The Trial of Lucullus, lib. by Brecht, 1949), Puntila (lib. after Brecht, 1957–9), Lanzelot (1969), Einstein (1971–3); In memoriam Bertolt Brecht, orch. (1957); Requiem für Lumumba, sop., bar., spkr., ch., ens. (1963); 2 syms. (1926, 1934, rev. 1962); 3 Orchestermusik (1955, 1967, 1973); and many songs.