(b Nizhny Novgorod, 1891; d Oslo, 1953).
Russ.‐born conductor, pianist, and composer. Début as cond. Moscow 1919 (Bolshoy 1921). Worked at Dresden with Fritz Busch, cond. first Ger. perf. of Boris Godunov (Dresden, 1922). Worked in Vienna, Sofia, and Budapest, frequent visitor to USA (Amer. début S. Francisco SO 1931). Cond. Göteborg SO 1939, Stockholm Royal Opera from 1941. Cond. and prod. Russ. operas at Scala from 1948. Comps. incl. concs. for pf. and vn. Became Norweg. cit. in 1930s.