Town in Germany with a mus. tradition going back to 17th cent. but notable especially for foundation in 1921 of first fest. devoted exclusively to contemp. mus. Fest. programmes 1921–6 planned mainly by Hindemith and Joseph Haas and incl. works by Krenek and Hába. In 1926 fest. was moved to Baden‐Baden, with emphasis on chamber opera, and in 1930 to Berlin, where competition from New Mus. fest. proved too great. In 1950 fest. was revived in collab. with SW Ger. Radio, Baden‐Baden, using radio orch. under Rosbaud and, from 1964, Ernest Bour. Among composers brought to the fore at post–1950 fests. are Boulez, Stockhausen, Xenakis, Nono, Ligeti, Berio, Fortner, Penderecki, and Henze. F.ps. there incl. Hindemith's Kammermusik No.1 (1922), Webern's 6 Songs, Op.14 (1924), Schoenberg's Serenade, Op.24 (1924), Boulez's Poésie pour pouvoir (1958), Messiaen's Chronochromie (1960), and Stockhausen's Mantra (1970).