Takes its name from the Irish Duibhlinn, ‘black pool’. Duibhlinn was an ecclesiastical centre seized by the Vikings in 841. It quickly became the main Viking military base and trading centre in Ireland and its Hiberno‐Norse rulers exercised power over its hinterland. After the victory at Clontarf (1014), Irish rulers established themselves as kings of Dublin and by the time Ireland was invaded by the Anglo‐Normans in 1169 Dublin was effectively the country's capital. It fell to Anglo‐Norman arms in 1170 and remained the headquarters of the English colony in Ireland. Georgian Dublin flourished and the abolition of its parliament in 1800 did little to lessen the city's expansion. Opposition to the Union led to the Easter Rising in the city in 1916, followed by the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1921, with Dublin as capital and the home again of an Irish parliament.