Dominican philosopher. He taught at Paris; in 1313 he was summoned to be Lector at the Papal Court at Avignon; later he became a bishop. He was one of the earliest exponents of what came to be called Nominalism. Rejecting the current doctrine on intelligible and sensible species, he held that the only real entities were individuals and accepted that individuation of a material substance is by means of the union of its matter and form. In theology he stood for a sharp contrast between faith and reason. He also held that the presence of Christ in the Eucharist did not preclude the continuing existence of the bread and wine.