The overseas territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Dutch wealth rested on the fishing and shipping industries, assisted by Holland's position on the chief European trade routes. Amsterdam became the principal warehouse and trading centre for all Europe. Modern banking methods developed from Amsterdam's exchange bank (1609). Overseas trade with Asia, America, and Africa grew steadily even during war. Spain and Portugal's attempt to exclude the Dutch from the ‘New World’ prompted them to found the Dutch East India Company (1602). Growing rivalry with Britain led to loss of maritime supremacy and of all Dutch colonies except in south-east Asia.
Subjects: World History.