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n. muscle dysfunction characterized by spasms or abnormal muscle contraction. One form is a postural disorder often associated with disease of the basal ganglia in the brain. There may be spasm in the muscles of the face (see hemifacial spasm), shoulders, neck, trunk, and limbs; the arm is often held in a rotated position and the head may be drawn back and to one side. Other forms of dystonia include torticollis, blepharospasm, and writer’s cramp. Dystonic conditions, including blepharospasm, may be helped by the injection of botulinum toxin. —dystonicadj.

Subjects: Medicine and Health.

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