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Difficulty with breathing. There can be various underlying causes, some of which are reversible. Four major disease groups may cause dyspnoea: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic heart diseases, neurological diseases (e.g. amyotropic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis) that weaken the muscles involved and cancer (often through blockage of airways by primary or secondary tumours). Other causes include asthma and pneumonia.

Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.

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