In 1850, Pope Pius IX, encouraged by Nicholas Wiseman, announced the restoration of a Roman catholic hierarchy in England with English territorial titles, such as archbishop of Westminster. This provocative move caused one of the final bouts of English anti‐popery. Lord John Russell, the prime minister, encouraged protests by his ‘Durham letter’ and by passing in 1851 the Ecclesiastical Titles Act, which forbade Roman catholics from using English place‐name titles. The Act was a dead letter and was repealed by Gladstone in 1871.
Subjects: British History.