An overview of sports enabling the breaking down of the sports economy into discrete economic accounts. A nine-class classification of physical and sporting activities (CPSA) has been produced by Brigitte Belloc and colleagues in France, working on data relating to twelve criteria: the type of practice (individual, dual, team); the required equipment; participant numbers for 15- to 75-year-olds; gender proportions of those participating; number of registered participants; age of registered participants; proportion of young people within those registered participants; number of participants practising at a high level; budgets of federations; federation budgets dedicated to professional practice; total broadcasting coverage on terrestrial television; and press coverage in L'Équipe (France's daily sports newspaper). Applying these criteria to previous classifications of activity, a nine-class CPSA was produced: independent leisure activities requiring equipment (such as bodybuilding, fishing, rock climbing, roller skating, ten-pin bowling); social and leisure activities (such as badminton, bowls, dancing, table tennis, and walking); highly organized activities (such as aeronautical sports, fencing, judo/martial arts, and shooting); individual sports requiring special equipment (such as canoeing, golf, ice skating, rowing, and waterskiing); equipment-intensive open-air sports (such as sailing and horse riding); individual mass-participation activities (such as cycling, gymnastics, swimming, track-and-field/athletics, winter sports); motor sports; semi-professional sports (basketball, combat sports, tennis, volleyball, other team sports); and professional sports (football, rugby) (Wladimir Andreff, ‘Sports Accounting’, in Wladimir Andreff and Stefan Szymanski, eds, Handbook on the Economics of Sport, 2006). Any CPSA is only as strong as the statistical data and sector information and intelligence upon which it is based; and the classification will be culturally, socially, and politically distinctive from country to country. Sophisticated modelling such as this, however, demonstrates the range of sporting practices that coexist in any society, and the relative socio-economic significance of those practices.
Subjects: Sport and Leisure.