Ecumenical Patriarch

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St Menas

St Gregory I (c. 540—604)


Photius (c. 810—895) Byzantine scholar and patriarch of Constantinople

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Courtesy title for the archbishop of Constantinople (6th century), endorsed by Justinian’s Novellae; referring to the imperial capital, his residence. In Rome it was rendered as universalis, though Pope Gregory I argued that no one bishop was ‘universal’.


Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

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