King of England (1272–1307), in succession to his father Henry III. He was married to Eleanor of Castile (1254), then to Margaret of France (1299). Edward's reputation as a successful ruler rests on his military and legal skills (for which he was called “the English Justinian”). His military achievements, which were motivated by a determination to extend royal power, included the defeat of Simon de Montfort (1265), the conquest of Wales (1277–82), the suppression of rebellions in Wales (1294–95) and Scotland (1296–1305), and the defence of his lands in Gascony against the French crown (1294–99). His legal reforms covered such matters as feudal administration (Statute of Westminster, 1275), crown lands (Quo Warranto, 1278), and law and order (Statute of Winchester, 1285), and he summoned the Model Parliament in 1295. He died during a vain expedition to subdue the Scots and was succeeded by Edward II.
Subjects: British History.