A paradigm in academic media research which focused on what was initially assumed to be the potentially major influence of the mass media on their audiences (see also hypodermic model). Heavily influenced by behaviourism, it was dominant from the 1920s until the 1950s in the USA, a particular concern being with anti-social behavioural effects (see also violence debate). Later research came to see any such influences as being minimal, limited, indirect (see also two-step flow), and subject to selective perception. By the early 1960s attention was turning from what media did to people to what people did with media (see uses and gratifications). Effects rhetoric continues to flourish in the ironic setting of the tabloid press (see also manipulative model; moral panic). There is little doubt that both the mass media and the mass use of technologies of interpersonal communication are inextricably linked to social change, but framing this in terms of effects neglects the rich complexity of human social relationships to technologies. Compare active audience theory.
http://www.newmediastudies.com/effects1.htm Ten things wrong with the ‘effects model’
Subjects: Media Studies.