Discharge of household waste water, sewage, and many specific industrial toxic by-products into rivers, lakes, and the sea is unregulated in some jurisdictions, subject to voluntary guidelines in some and to regulations of varying rigor and enforceability in others. Problems and disputes arise in many circumstances, for instance, when standards vary in different jurisdictions sharing riparian rights to the same waterway, as was the case with the Rhine and Danube rivers in Europe until international agreements and European Union directives addressed the issue. A similar set of problems and issues was addressed by the International Joint Commission that deals with the North American Great Lakes. Gaseous effluent guidelines are often included in clean air acts.
Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.