Technology of the early civilizations in Egypt and in Mesopotamia, both of which arose in about 3000 bc. The early civilizations of Mesopotamia included the Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian empires. These two areas provide the earliest known examples of many basic technologies – pottery and glass-making, the extraction and working of metals, textiles, woodworking, and building techniques – which were firmly established long before the Christian era. Both had highly developed agricultural systems in which strictly controlled irrigation played a critical role. They were skilled at astronomical observation and computation and devised intricate calendars, important for observing the annual cycle of sowing, growth, and harvesting. Systems of pictographic writing were developed in both areas, and standardized weights and measures were introduced. Both civilizations had highly organized urban communities and established trading relationships with distant countries, facilitated by the development of shipbuilding and of road systems.
Subjects: World History.