In the atmosphere, the transition stratum between the surface boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Ekman layer rectification describes the way the Ekman layer velocity profile differs with variations in surface winds (McWilliams and Huckle (2006) J. Phys. Oceanog. 36, 8). The Ekman spiral models changes in wind speed with height in the planetary boundary layer (Wang and Huang (2004) J. Phys. Oceanog. 34, 5).
Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology.