A small kingdom centred in southern Iran in the 3rd millennium bc with its capital at Susa. Its development paralleled the rise of state organizations in Mesopotamia, with writing (proto‐Elamite) appearing around 3000 bc. The Elamites often appear in Mesopotamian texts as enemies, and indeed it was Elamite incursions that brought down the third dynasty in Ur in the late 3rd millennium bc. The sculpture and metalwork of Elamite craft workers was of the highest quality, and the kingdom reached its peak under Untash‐gal, who extended its borders by invading Kassite Babylonia. He built a new royal city at Choga Zanbil. Around 640 bc the Elamite kingdom fell to the Assyrians when Ashurbanipal sacked Susa.