American scholar and biographer. In 1970 he became Goldsmiths' professor of English literature at Oxford. His publications include Yeats: The Man and the Mask (1948, rev. 1979) and several works on Joyce, including his biography, James Joyce (1959, rev. 1982), which made a highly influential contribution to the new conception of the art of biography that developed at this period. He also edited the New Oxford Book of American Verse (1976). His Oscar Wilde appeared in 1987.