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The state of being located or secured within a larger entity or context. The economic life of a firm or market is territorially embedded in its peculiar social and cultural relations; in place-specific characteristics, infrastructure, operating environments; and conditions of production. Transnational corporations in the USA are ‘highly constrained by dynamic and deep capital…[while] their Japanese counterparts are effectively bound by complex but reliable networks of domestic relationships’ (Yeung (2000) TIBG23, 3).

Hess (2004, PHG28, 1) argues that there are interconnected societal, network, and territorial dimensions of embeddedness: territorial embeddedness—the extent to which an ‘actor’ is anchored in particular territories or places; societal embeddedness—the cultural, political, institutional, and regulatory framework the actor is located in; and network embeddedness—the structure of relationships among a set of individuals/organizations. Granovetter in N. Nohria and R. Eccles, eds (1992) defines structural embeddedness as ‘the connectedness of not only two parties, but the extent of interconnection among third parties or mutual contacts of dyadic partners’. Orderud (2007) Geografiska B 89, 4 refers to an embeddedness ‘where trust acts as a reinforcement…as a capacity restraint and a socially constructed need for face-to-face meetings’. See Feagan (2007) PHG31, 1 on the ‘quality turn’ and embeddedness in food supply; see also Jones (2008) PHG32, 1.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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