A model developed in 1984 by Peggy Kreshel, a professor of advertising theory, to examine the influence of emotions on buying behaviour. This extended the range of prior models, such as the hierarchy of effects model, that had emphasized cognition as the spring source of purchasing behaviour. In the 1980s there was a growing recognition that many of the academic models had, for the most part, ignored emotion as a significant factor in consumer response. Throughout the 1980s numerous new models of consumer response were created which held emotion to be the underlying element that shaped all subsequent responses. Peggy Kreshel suggested that cognition could alter affect (as in previous models) only because of the affective connotations carried by the cognitive process. In other words, information is relevant primarily because of its affective impact. Or, put another way, it is impossible to separate our emotional connections to a stimulus from the stimulus itself. See also advertising; aida; buyer and buying behaviour; dagmar; hierarchy of effects.