is usually defined as those arrangements for employee participation that are designed by managers and instigated by employers. EI techniques include direct communication, team briefing, suggestion schemes, and quality circles. As this list suggests, EI initiatives are usually task based, leaving strategic business decisions securely in the hands of managers, and their adoption is motivated primarily by a desire to improve worker and business performance. These techniques are designed to encourage employees to identify with employer objectives and allow them to contribute directly to the improvement of business operations. There is evidence of an increase in the use of EI techniques in recent years, which is viewed by many as an indicator of employers adopting soft HRM.
Subjects: Human Resource Management.