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Charles I gave himself up to the Scots in 1646 and began negotiations. In December 1647 he signed a secret treaty or engagement, whereby presbyterianism should be established in Scotland, and in England for three years. In exchange, the Scots promised an army. The result was the second civil war in 1648. But the Scottish army under Hamilton which invaded England was routed by Cromwell at Preston in August 1648.

Subjects: British History.

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