German architect. He trained under Friedrich Gilly and further developed his Neo-Classicism in St Petersburg, Russia. He settled in Helsinki, Finland, in 1816, having been appointed architect for the new capital of the then Grand Duchy, and designed many important buildings there, including the Senate House (1818–22), Lutheran Cathedral (1830–40), the University Library (1836–45), and City Hall (1827–33). In 1824 he was appointed Controller of Public Works, leading to the dissemination of his Neo-Classical language throughout Finland. His architectural output was prolific and usually distinguished.
Engel (1990);Lilius et al. (1990);Middleton & Watkin (1987);Suolahti (1973);Jane Turner (1996);Wickberg (1962, 1970)