Scotland had no territorial episcopate before the 12th cent. and no archbishoprics before the late 15th cent. Although the church assumed an increasingly presbyterian accent after the Reformation, bishops remained a lively issue in the conflicts bedevilling church and crown between 1560 and 1690. Thereafter Scotland's remaining episcopalians formed links with English non‐jurors, participating in 1711 in a joint consecration of bishops. An Act of Toleration (1712) gave them legal standing provided their ministers took the oath of allegiance to Queen Anne. The 19th cent. saw substantial reconstruction: seven dioceses by 1837, a doubling of churches and clergy by 1857, a Church Council since 1876, and a Consultative Council on Church Legislation since 1905, the whole later enhanced by a General Synod.
Subjects: British History.