errors of logical reasoning

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Any of several common flaws in logic fit this description. They include false inferences and conclusions, such as the ecological fallacy or type III error, i.e., use of unsuitable or the wrong kind of statistical tests. The history of medicine offers many examples, including discredited theories of disease causation that led to harmful therapies, such as excision of most of the colon for the nonexistent disease called auto-intoxication, based on the premise that the digested contents of the large intestine poisoned the system.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

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