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Erhard Seminars Training, a technique of group therapy, designed to raise self-awareness and foster psychological growth, in which people spend sessions lasting many hours deprived of food, drink, and toilet facilities during which they are hectored, abused, and demeaned by stewards. In 1984 the name was changed to Landmark Forum, but it continued to be called est by many people. [Named after the US businessman Werner Erhard (born 1935), who developed the technique in 1971 after dropping his original name Jack Rosenberg and styling himself after the German theoretical physicist Werner Heisenberg and the German economics minister Ludwig Erhard]

Subjects: Psychology.

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