Ethics are the principles of right and wrong conduct; the basis for doing what is right, and the discernment of what is right (W. R. F. Browning1997); morals are the accepted norms and standards of conduct of a society, community, or nation (J. Last2007). Smith (2001) PHG25, 2 seeks to clarify the difference between these two concepts: ‘moral philosophers would doubtless agree that writing about certain things being right or wrong counts as ethics, but would wish to consider how such normative claims are made.’ Cloke (2002) PHG26 asks geographers to live ethically and act politically, but Evanoff (2007) Eth. Place. Env. 10, 2 argues that a single environmental ethic that can be universally applied in all geographic settings and across cultures ‘cannot be formulated’. Madge (2007) PHG31, 5 provides a wide-ranging review of research ethics in geography.
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.