Also called Long Island. The chief cities in antiquity were Chalcis and Eretria; in between was Lefkandi, where remarkable 10th‐cent. bc finds have revised notions of the Dark Age of Greece. Other cities were Histiaea, and marble‐rich Carystus. In the 8th cent. Chalcis and Eretria were active mercantile centres, which led the islanders to involvement in an emporion at Al Mina in Syria by 800. They established colonies on the NW shores of the Aegean and in Italy and Sicily (see colonization, greek; pithecusae) and fought over the Lelantine plain, which lay between them, in the 8th cent. In 506 Athens compelled Chalcis to surrender part of the plain and installed a cleruchy. In 490 the Persian Datis attacked Euboea, capturing Eretria and Carystus. Euboean contingents fought Persia at Salamis and Plataea. Owing to Boeotian intrigues, Euboea revolted from Athens in 446, but was reconquered by Pericles, who planted more cleruchies. The cities remained tributary allies of Athens in the Delian League, and in the Peloponnesian War, acc. to Thucydides, Euboea was ‘more valuable to Athens than Attica itself’; it revolted in 411.
Subjects: Classical Studies — Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).