Cistercian, Pope from 1145. He was much influenced by St Bernard, under whom he had entered Clairvaux in 1135. In 1147 he commissioned him to preach the Second Crusade. In 1148 he held synods at Reims, which dealt with the heresy of Gilbert de la Porrée and the visions of St Hildegard, and at Cremona, where he excommunicated Arnold of Brescia. Feast day, 8 July.