; suborder Apocrita, superfamily Vespoidea)
Family of solitary, predatory wasps, whose adults make flask-shaped nests of clay and small pebbles glued together with saliva. Most adults are 10–20 mm long, marked with black, yellow, or white, and have elongate, knife-like mandibles. A large and widely distributed group, it is sometimes regarded as a subfamily of the Vespidae. All species provision their nests with paralysed lepidopteran, symphytan, or coleopteran larvae.
Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.