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A European–Russian cooperative programme agreed in 1992, allowing European Space Agency (ESA) astronauts an opportunity to fly long-duration science missions aboard Russia's Mir space station. Four astronauts were selected in 1993 to train for two planned missions. The ESA astronaut for EuroMir 94 was the German Ulf Merbold, who was launched on Soyuz TM-20 on 4 October 1994 for a mission lasting 31 days. The EuroMir 95 astronaut was another German, Thomas Reiter, who was launched with two cosmonauts aboard Soyuz TM-22 on 3 September 1995, for a 179-day mission. A EuroMir 97 mission was discussed but not agreed by ESA member states. Several other European astronauts flew missions to Mir under agreements signed by Russia with individual countries.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics.

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