Isca Dumnoniorum was successively fortress of legio II Augusta from the mid‐50s to the mid‐70s then civitas‐capital of the Dumnonii. Some houses have been excavated, but comfort and degree of Roman culture do not seem to have been high. Exeter was refounded as a fortified town (burh) by Alfred. It rose to be one of the leading English towns of the 10th–12th cents., acquiring a bishop's see (1050) and, after a rebellion against the Normans, a castle (1068). It never really industrialized, and has remained a modest‐sized regional centre.