'exile' can also refer to...

“A Chinese Ishmael”: Sui Sin Far, Writing, and Exile

Abdication and Exile

Adultery and Sympathy in Ulysses and Exiles

Alan Rudolph Marcus. Relocating Eden: The Image and Politics of Inuit Exile in the Canadian Arctic. (Arctic Visions.) Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England. 1995. Pp. xvi, 272. $19.95

Alice Bullard. Exile to Paradise: Savagery and Civilization in Paris and the South Pacific, 1790–1900. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 2000. Pp. 380. $55.00

American ‘Song’ of Iraqi Exile: Whitman and Saadi Youssef

American Babylon: Notes of a Christian Exile

An 1848 for the Americas: The Black Atlantic, “El negro mártir,” and Cuban Exile Anticolonialism in New York City

Andrew A. Gentes. Exile to Siberia, 1590–1822. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2008. Pp. xiii, 271. $69.95

Anglicans and Royalists at War and in Exile

Ann Hui’s Song of the Exile

Anna, Exiled, Becomes a Water Nymph

Anna, Exiled, Becomes a Water Nymph (Carthaginian/Tunisia)

Arab-American Faces and Voices: The Origins of an Immigrant Community. Elizabeth Boosahda. Austin: U of Texas P, 2003. xix + 284 pages. $65.00 cloth; $24.95 paper and Palestinians Born in Exile: Diaspora and the Search for a Homeland. Juliane Hammer. Austin: U of Texas P, 2005. xiii + 271 pages. $55.00 cloth; $22.95 paper.

The Artistry of Exile

Assaulting the State-in-Exile from Within


Assyrian Exile

At Home in Exile: The Living Paradoxes of Moyshe Nadir’s Early 20th-Century American Yiddish Satire (Discussion and Translation)

Augusto Fauni Espiritu. Five Faces of Exile: The Nation and Filipino American Intellectuals. (Asian America.) Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. 2005. Pp. xix, 312. Cloth $65.00, paper $25.95

The Babylonian Captivity of the Book of Isaiah. ‘Exilic’ Judah and the Provenance of Isaiah 40–55. By Hans M. Barstad. Pp. 120. Oslo: Novus forlag, 1997. ISBN 82 7099 289 5. Nkr. 149.


The Babylonian Exile

Battigelli, Anna. Margaret Cavendish and the Exiles of the Mind. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1998. xii+180 pp. $32.00 (cloth). ISBN 0–8131–2068–3.

‘Being at Home in the Body we are in Exile from the Lord’ (2 Cor 5:6b)

Belgian Exile

Between Exile and Homeland: The Films of Elia Suleiman

Between King, Faith and Reason: Father Peter Talbot (SJ) and Catholic Royalist Thought in Exile *

Bible for Exiles

The Birth of a Fashion (1): Empire and Exile


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Exile (phygē, lit. ‘flight’) is permanent or long‐term removal from one's native place, usually as a punishment imposed by government or other superior power. In Greece it was from earliest times a standard consequence of homicide, and was as much a religious way of getting rid of a source of pollution as a punishment.

In Classical Greece exile was a punishment for various offences, such as professional failure by a general or ambassador. Sometimes, however, the ambiguity of the word ‘to flee’—‘be exiled’ or ‘flee’—means we do not know if an individual was formally exiled or simply fled voluntarily to escape worse. In addition, we often hear of political exiles, as individuals or groups. Again, it is sometimes unclear whether such exiles were driven out by actual decree or because life was for whatever reason intolerable. Decrees of exile were sometimes reversed. As a result of Alexander 2 the Great's ‘Exiles' Decree’, exiles returned to their origins. As beneficiaries of this general policy, Samians returned to Samos in 322, 44 years after their expulsion by Athens, which therefore found itself with an influx of refugees of its own; the Lamian War between Athens and Macedon was the result. The 5th‐cent. Athenian institution of ostracism was an unusual sort of exile in that it was for ten years only and involved no loss of property. Argos and Syracuse had or borrowed similar practices.


Exile, either undertaken voluntarily to escape a penalty (usually death), or imposed as a punishment, was common in the ancient world. In Rome it was originally voluntary. A person threatened by criminal proceedings for a capital offence could, even after the proceedings had begun, but before sentence, remove himself from Roman jurisdiction. This self‐banishment was tolerated by the magistrates, provided that the person did not return from exile. In the late republic this exsilium was institutionalized as, in effect, a substitute for the death penalty. The magistrates were required to allow a condemned person time to escape before a capital sentence was executed. After his departure a decree denying water and fire excluded him from all legal protection and threatened him with death if he returned illicitly. This kind of exile was replaced under the Principate by a formal sentence of deportation or of the milder penalty of relegation.

Subjects: classical studies.

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