Generally, any political grouping the writer disapproves of. Thus, Madison, in the two most famous numbers of Federalist, nos. 10 and 51, wished to design a set of institutions for the USA that would combat faction, and stipulated that ‘Ambition must be made to counteract ambition’ (no. 51). The extended republic of the United States would minimize the ill effects of faction because ‘A rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it’ (no. 10). More specifically, an organized group within a political party, especially in a country where they have semi‐permanent existence, such as Japan or Italy.