A school in which the ethos and teaching are to some extent controlled by a religious body. In Britain there were charity schools and from the late 18th century Sunday Schools, but the provision of universal education was pioneered in the early 19th century by Church-based associations such as the National Society (q.v.). From 1833 government grants became increasingly available for the schools of voluntary bodies, but in return they had to accept building requirements and inspection. In 1870 a parallel system of state schools was established; in these no denominational teaching was allowed. From 1944 the voluntary schools were divided into ‘aided’ or ‘controlled’, the former retaining more freedom but receiving less funding than the latter. In the latter part of the 20th century Muslim and other non-Judaeo-Christian communities founded schools and then sought similar government funding (first achieved in 1998), and the term ‘faith school’ came into use. In some countries (e.g. France), the faith schools and state system are quite separate.