1. In communication based on the pathological exploitation of unequal power relations, the reframing of oppression as benevolent and protective (Bateson).
2. For the American sociologists Robert Goldman and Stephen Papson, a reflexive strategy employed in any advertisement targeted at savvy consumers which involves calling attention to assumptions that are normally implicit in communication (e.g. drawing attention to its status as an advertisement, or to its constructedness) and thus giving the disarming appearance of being honest in demystifying the process; see also reflexivity. This can be seen as a form of misdirection. In such a strategy the focus is not on the product, brand, or service itself but on the audience, or rather the audience's relationship to the advertiser and to the communicative code employed. We are aligned with the advertiser, the idea being that we are won over by this refreshing honesty, and flattered by this invitation into the advertiser's confidence and by this tribute to our own sophistication, so that we are inclined to favour the brand.