1. An interpretive community consisting of dedicated followers of any cultural phenomenon, such as a television series or serial or a particular film genre or film star.
2. An interconnected social network of such subcultural communities.
3. A form of consumer activity in which ardent enthusiasts, referred to by Jenkins as ‘textual poachers’, subversively appropriate their favourite mass-media texts for their own purposes, sometimes actively rewriting them. See also textual poaching; compare participatory culture.
4. The process of becoming a fan.
5. Any or all of these as a field of academic study.