Palestinian Islamic scholar, writer, and activist. Governor of Galilee 1945–48. Professor at universities in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and South and Southeast Asia. Works focus on a comprehensive vision of Islam and its relationship to all aspects of life and culture. Presented Islam as a religion of reason, science, and progress, emphasizing action and the work ethic. Combined the classical affirmation of God's oneness (tawhid) with a modernist interpretation and application of Islam to modern life through the exercise of ijtihad. Established Islamic studies programs, recruited and trained Muslim students, organized Muslim professionals, and was an active participant in international ecumenical dialogue. Cofounded the International Institute for Islamic Thought in the United States in 1981. Regarded the political, economic, and religio-cultural malaise of the Islamic community as a product of the bifurcated state of education in the Muslim world, which has resulted in a loss of identity and world vision. Believed the cure was the compulsory study of Islamic civilization and the Islamization of modern knowledge. Murdered in 1986.