Moroccan historian, teacher, poet, and political leader. Taught Islamic history at al-Qarawiyin University (1930). In 1934 he and other activists issued a Moroccan Reform Plan. Arrested and exiled to Gabon by the French (1937–46) but continued to influence the Moroccan reform movement. Upon return from Gabon, served as head of the Istiqlal (Independence) Party but in 1947 was forced to flee to Cairo and remained there until Moroccan independence in 1956. Most important writings include The Independence Movements in North Africa (1947) and Self-Criticism (1951). Advocated Arabic language reform and avoiding imitation of the West.